The Role of Nutrition in Fertility

December 27th, 2023 | 10:23 am


When couples face difficulties with infertility, the journey towards becoming parents can be a tiring one, involving medical procedures, emotional highs and lows, and financial burdens. Therefore, it is essential for individuals to take measures to ensure their fertility is preserved. This involves understanding the impact of diet and lifestyle factors on fertility. 

Proper nutrition forms the basis of health and well being including function. Many couples have found success in conceiving by adopting lifestyle practices including maintaining proper nutrition that support fertility.

We will further delve into the relationship between food choices, nutritional values and fertility, for both women and men.

How are Nutrition and Fertility Related?

At its core, conception depends on a complex hormonal interplay between the pituitary gland in the brain, the ovaries in women, and the testes in men. Imbalances in these hormone pathways can disrupt:

  • Ovulation,
  • Sperm production, and
  • Fertility.

Modern dietary habits are full of processed foods and lack key nutrients, which can disrupt these delicate hormonal networks. On the other hand, switching to a whole food, plant-centric diet has been shown to optimise hormones and improve chances of conception. Here are some ways in which nutrition can help with fertility: 

  • Replacing harmful trans and saturated fats with anti-inflammatory monounsaturated fats found in olive oil, avocados, and nuts can regulate reproductive hormones. 
  • Getting adequate vegetable protein from beans, lentils, and whole grains also provides favourable hormone levels compared to excessive animal proteins. 
  • Choosing high-fibre carbohydrates with a low glycemic index helps prevent blood sugar spikes that can impair ovulation. 
  • Beyond macronutrients, a sufficient intake of iron, folate, zinc, and antioxidants from fruits and vegetables also supports reproductive health for both genders. 
  • A balanced diet of whole plant foods, healthy fats, clean proteins, and minimal sugar stabilises hormones for optimum fertility.

Foods that Can Improve Fertility

Along with an overall high-quality diet, certain individual foods have been shown to boost reproductive outcome, such as:

  • For women struggling with ovulation issues, eating plenty of iron-rich plant foods can help restore regular menstrual cycles. 
  • Lentils, beans, spinach, and fortified whole grains are excellent vegetarian iron sources, especially when paired with vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables that increase iron absorption.

Additionally, researchers have validated a “Fertility Diet” pattern that has been associated with a 66% lower risk of ovulatory infertility in women who closely followed it. This diet emphasises:

  • Vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • Plant protein
  • High-fat dairy
  • Monounsaturated fats

It also includes daily prenatal vitamins with at least 400 mcg of folic acid, which helps prevent neural tube defects in developing embryos.

For men, on the other hand, antioxidants like lycopene found in cooked tomatoes, pink grapefruit, and watermelon have been shown to improve sperm health parameters, such as motility and morphology. Other fertility superfoods for men that contain nutrients fostering strong sperm include:

  • Walnuts
  • Pomegranate
  • Onions
  • Garlic

Clearly, nutrition and specific foods matter when it comes to fertility. Focusing on vegetables, healthy fats, clean proteins, whole grains, and targeted superfoods helps in reproductive success.

Foods That Should Be Avoided 

When trying to conceive it’s important to be mindful of the type of food to consume. Some specific food items have effects on fertility both in men and women. These include:

High Glycemic Foods:

  • Foods such as rice, french fries, mashed potatoes, rice cakes, and corn flakes can cause an increase in blood sugar levels.
  • These can lead to insulin resistance, hormonal imbalances, inflammation, and weight gain. 
  • This effect in metabolism can affect ovulation, sperm health and the ability to conceive.


  • Consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day ( to 2 3 cups of coffee) increases the risk of ovulation related issues.
  • Caffeine can also contribute to fatigue and hormonal imbalances.
  • If you’re facing fertility challenges, you must reduce or eliminate high caffeine beverages like coffee, energy drinks, and soda.

Trans Fats:

  • These fats are commonly found in fast food items, pre packaged snacks, frozen meals, and baked goods.
  • Trans fats promote inflammation within tissues while also causing insulin resistance and oxidative damage.
  • It is advisable to limit the consumption of trans fats from processed and fried foods.

Unpasteurized Dairy:

  • Soft cheeses, milk, and yoghurt made from unpasteurized dairy may contain Listeria bacteria. 
  • Listeria infections can cross the placenta and harm a developing foetus. 
  • Pasteurisation kills pathogens; only consume dairy products made from pasteurised milk.


  • Regular drinking affects ovulation, sperm production, and embryonic development. 
  • Heavy alcohol intake also depletes nutrients essential for fertility. 
  • It is best to avoid alcohol when trying to conceive.

Why is a Balanced Diet Important?

When struggling with fertility issues, optimising one’s diet provides a foundation for improving reproductive outcomes. Key nutritional considerations include:

Macronutrient Balance

  • Carbohydrates: Complex carbs from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains provide steady energy and stabilise insulin. 
  • Protein: High-quality lean protein supports reproductive hormone production. 
  • Fats: Healthy fats like olive oil and avocado enable hormone and vitamin absorption.

Micronutrient Needs:

  • Folate: Essential for early foetal development; found in leafy greens and legumes. 
  • Iron: Supports blood formation; obtained from spinach, lentils, and lean meat. 
  • Zinc: Crucial for reproductive organ development; concentrated in whole grains and seeds. 
  • Vitamin D: Enhances fertility outcomes; found in fatty fish, eggs, and fortified dairy.


  • Protect reproductive cells and tissues from oxidative damage. 
  • Rich sources include brightly coloured fruits and vegetables like citrus, berries, and leafy greens.


  • Helps maintain reproductive hormone balance and uterine lining.
  • Found primarily in fatty fish, walnuts, chia, and flax seeds.


  • Supports cervical mucus, circulation, and reproductive organ function.
  • Aim for 8 glasses of water daily; avoid sugar beverages.

With holistic lifestyle changes, the body can produce healthy eggs, sperm, and hormones to assist conception. 

How Nutrient Imbalances Affect Fertility?

Adequate intake of macronutrients, micronutrients, and calories provides the metabolic foundation for reproductive health.  Not getting the right nutrition can affect fertility in the following ways:

Caloric Restriction:

  • Severely cutting calories can lead to dangerous weight loss, pubertal delays, and menstrual irregularity.
  • The body senses starvation and suppresses ovulation/sperm production to prevent pregnancy.
  • A low BMI is also associated with gonadotropin and sex hormone abnormalities.

Protein & Micronutrient Deficiency:

  • Diets lacking protein, vitamins, and minerals sabotage ovarian function.
  • Eggs and sperm rely on nutrients to mature properly and unite.
  • Key nutrients for fertility include iron, folate, vitamin D, zinc, and antioxidants.

Diet-Induced Hormonal Imbalance:

  • Inadequate nutrition alters delicate reproductive hormone pathways.
  • Disruption of hormones like oestrogen, FSH, and LH can disrupt ovulation.
  • An imbalance in nutrients or calories can also lower fertility after giving birth.

Embryo Implantation Failure:

  • Dietary deficiencies create a uterine environment unable to support embryo development.
  • Problems with blood flow, nutrient transport, and hormone balance prevent implantation.
  • These issues may also impact egg quality and early embryo development.

Rather than complete restriction, fertility requires a diet abundant in clean proteins, healthy fats, complex carbs, and micronutrients. Work with a nutritionist and fertility specialist to identify any nutritional issues that might affect your ability to have a baby.

Targeted lab testing and personalised nutrition counselling can help find and fix any imbalances in your body. This way, your body can better support egg release, sperm production, and the growth of a baby.


Several studies make it clear that one’s daily food choices and nutritional status can have tremendous influence over reproductive outcomes, ranging from hormone levels and menstrual cycles to egg quality and sperm parameters.

Couples struggling with fertility issues stand to benefit from adopting fertility-centric diets that emphasise whole, unprocessed foods, healthy fats, clean proteins, and micronutrient-rich foods.