PCOD or PCOS is a common medical condition that affects the reproductive organs in females, particularly the ovaries. The ovaries are responsible for producing hormones (oestrogen, progesterone, and even androgens), eggs (female gametes), and indirectly controlling the menstrual cycle. This condition may cause symptoms such as irregular periods, excessive acne and hair growth, and infertility issues, among other problems.
Individuals with PCOD/PCOS are at a higher risk of certain health conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure compared to those without the condition. Treatments for PCOD/PCOS involve managing symptoms to regulate hormonal balance in the body.
PCOD, or polycystic ovary disease, is a condition in which the ovaries of affected females produce partially or completely immature eggs over a period of time. This eventually manifests in the form of cysts in the ovaries, leading to the enlargement of the ovaries and further causing the release of more androgens (male hormones).
The oversecretion of androgens causes several problems in menstruation, exhibiting symptoms that include:
The treatment of PCOD involves the modification of lifestyle through dietary changes and weight management practices.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS, is a condition characterised by hormonal imbalance resulting from the excessive secretion of androgen hormones by the ovaries. It leads to similar symptoms as those of PCOD, such as irregularities in the menstrual cycle, acne, excessive hair loss, and obesity, along with other symptoms like:
PCOS can be present in an individual without any symptoms or with very mild symptoms, often leading females to remain undiagnosed until they attempt to become pregnant or experience unexplained weight gain. Living with PCOS without management can increase the risk of various conditions in the long term, including heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Treatment for PCOS may involve medication or even surgery in severe cases.
Common Symptoms of PCOD and PCOS
PCOD or PCOS may occur at any time after puberty, but symptoms may not be visible or as severe, not requiring medical diagnosis. Thus, the range of symptoms experienced by females may not be the same for everyone.
The most common signs and symptoms experienced by females with PCOD/PCOS may include the following:
Infertility or difficulty conceiving is one of the most prominent symptoms of PCOD/PCOS, observed by females who are trying to get pregnant.
The exact cause of PCOS is not known, but there are several significant factors that may increase the likelihood of having PCOS. These factors may include one or more of the following:
Having PCOS may increase the risk of health complications related to various conditions, including miscarriage during pregnancy. People with PCOS may also be predisposed to other gestational complications, such as:
Furthermore, PCOS may also heighten the chances of developing other physical as well as mental health conditions and complications, which encompass:
Females with PCOD/PCOS may often disregard the symptoms of this condition as normal hormonal changes, especially if the symptoms are mild. They might visit the doctor to manage specific, severe symptoms or when experiencing issues related to getting pregnant or menstruation.
Based on physical symptoms such as the presence of skin tags, acne, excessive facial hair, and other factors, the treating gynaecologist may start by taking a history of the symptoms, lifestyle choices, habits, associated medical history, as well as the family history of PCOS incidence. They may recommend certain tests, which could include the following:
Additionally, the gynaecologist might suggest certain additional diagnostic tests to check for any complications, which could involve the following:
Treatment for PCOD/PCOS may focus on managing individual problems depending on symptoms such as irregular periods, weight gain, acne, excessive hair growth, and infertility, among others. Treatment usually begins with lifestyle changes, including diet and weight management. A nutritious and balanced diet can positively affect insulin levels in the body. Losing about 5-10% of body weight can also have a positive impact, improving cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of heart disease and diabetes.
The gynaecologist may recommend specific medical treatments to manage individual symptoms, which may include:
The best approach to treating PCOD/PCOS may involve maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI), following the recommended medications from the gynaecologist, and prioritising overall health.
PCOD/PCOS may not be preventable, but it can be managed after diagnosis by taking care of body weight through regular exercise and maintaining a healthy diet.
At Giggles Hospital, we are dedicated to providing world-class diagnostic and clinical services for gynaecological conditions, with the primary goal of patient comfort and cure in mind. Our team of highly qualified gynaecologists takes immense care in providing the most accurate evaluation of PCOD/PCOS conditions, as well as devising methods for appropriate treatment with the utmost clinical acumen. Book your appointment today.