Fertility – What is Infertility?
The general definition of infertility is the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of unprotected intercourse. This explanation applies to couples under the age of 35 per woman. If the woman is over 35 and the couple fails to conceive for more than 6 months, a fertility specialist should be consulted for an in-depth investigation and treatment. Women over the age of 39 should begin investigation and treatment after 3 months of good intercourse.
To determine the cause of infertility, a full evaluation by a fertility specialist is required. Some common health disorders or medications given can contribute to the feeling of delay. In some cases, infertility may be a temporary condition; It can be caused by a number of factors such as lifestyle, poor nutrition, toxins, environmental influences or poor timing.
About 10% of couples suffer from infertility / infertility. Many causes of infertility in women and men can be successfully treated using fertility treatments. Your fertility specialist will formulate a treatment plan for you by studying the infertility test results and calculating your age, family goals and personal preferences.
Types of Female Infertility There are two types of infertility:
- Primary infertility A woman who has not had previous pregnancies is called primary infertile. This type occurs in 40% of infertile couples.
- Secondary infertility A woman has previous pregnancies, but is unable to conceive again is called secondary infertility. Age is a major cause of infertility.
Due to lifestyle changes, women have to wait longer to get pregnant. However, age has the potential to become one of the biggest difficulties. Beyond the age of 30, most women have an increased chance of infertility.
On a positive note, as awareness of infertility grows, individuals and couples can now make educated decisions and have public discussions about taking a step towards starting a family and seeking help for pregnancy-related issues.
To conceive, the quality and size of the female egg are paramount. After the age of 35, quality and quantity begin to gradually decline. This regression occurs more rapidly after 40 years. As the quality and size of the eggs decrease, it becomes difficult to conceive. The chances of miscarriage increase from less than 10% for women in their twenties to 90% for women over 45 years of age
Causes of female infertility:
- Ovulation defects: Ovulation, the release of an egg from a mature ovarian follicle, is an important process for fertilization and pregnancy. Ovulation defects are characterized by irregular ovulation or complete absence of ovulation. Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) or low frequency of menstruation (oligomenorrhea) is usually an indicator of ovulation problems. However, women with normal menstrual bleeding also experience ovulation defects.
- Amazement of the fallopian tubes: Damage to the fallopian tubes is one of the most common causes of female infertility (approximately 30 – 40%). The fallopian tubes must be open to allow the sperm to fertilize the egg as well as transport the oocyte and embryo to the uterus. Various factors can cause tubal infertility, infection, adhesions caused by previous abdominal surgery, or endometriosis. Ectopic pregnancy can also damage the fallopian tubes.
- Endometriosis: Endometriosis is defined as a condition in which the endometrium (the lining of the uterus) grows outside the uterus. Injuries to the endometrium can interfere with ovulation, fertilization and implantation or block / tubal function. Statistics show that 70% of women with endometriosis suffer from infertility.
- Uterine and cervical factors: Abnormalities that cause cervical (opening of the uterus) infertility are anatomical problems such as infections, tight opening and quality of cervical mucus. Cervical mucus plays an important role in reproduction by facilitating the movement of sperm through the reproductive system. The mucus changes in size and quality of mucus during the action of estrogen and progesterone throughout the menstrual cycle. Infertility can also be caused by benign tumors such as fibroids or deep scarring of the uterine wall following infection (e.g. tuberculosis is common in India). Uterine fibroids are benign tumors on the uterine wall that can block the fallopian tubes or prevent the fertilized egg from forming normally.
- Immune factors: The body’s immune system also plays an important role in infertility. Currently it is difficult to diagnose and very difficult to treat, due to factors that may involve both partners. For example, a woman’s cervical mucus may contain anti-sperm antibodies or a man may also produce antibodies against his sperm. Similarly, some autoantibodies damage the attachment and growth of the fetus to the uterine lining (endometrium).
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), also known as Stein-Levantle Syndrome, is a hormonal disorder that affects 6 to 10% of women. There is an abnormal increase in androgens (male hormones) with PCOS in the ovaries, which interferes with normal egg maturation. The ovaries, instead of being released during ovulation, develop into cysts, which are small fluid-filled sacs. These cysts build up in the ovaries and increase the size of the ovary.
- Premature ovarian failure: Premature cessation of menstruation due to lack of follicles before the age of forty. Radiation exposure, chemotherapy treatments, immune system diseases, excessive alcohol consumption or heavy smoking may be the cause. Genetic conditions can also cause premature menopause in the ovaries and increase the size of the ovary.
- Thyroid problems: Abnormalities in the thyroid gland can disrupt the menstrual cycle, leading to infertility.
- Hyperprolactinemia: Hyperprolactinemia is a hormonal condition in which the pituitary gland produces high amounts of prolactin. A hormone called prolactin stimulates women’s milk production. Generally, in non-pregnant women, small amounts of prolactin circulate in the blood. During pregnancy and immediately after delivery, large amounts of prolactin are produced. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are one of the most common causes of prolactin overdose. Under-active thyroid (hypothyroidism) or certain medications can cause excessive prolactin secretion. Hyperprolactinemia can cause irregular ovulation or completely prevent ovulation, leading to infertility. Women with this condition often have irregular menstrual cycles and may also produce milk when not pregnant (galactorrhea).
- Cancer treatments: Both chemotherapy and radiation can dramatically affect a woman’s fertility.
- Unexplained infertility: Even after thorough medical examination, the infertility of a couple has not yet been explained. Couples with unexplained infertility for up to three years are generally considered normal. However, after three years of unexplained infertility, the chances of a natural conception decrease significantly. At that point, if a couple wants to have offspring, they need to start assisted reproduction methods without additional delay.
Diagnosis of female infertility:
Fertility tests play an important role in fertility evaluation and treatment. Tests can help a health care provider better understand the reasons why you should stop getting pregnant. These simple tests can be done step by step and assess the ovulation and ovulation, sperm parameters and the quality and reproductive anatomy. Once the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and sperm test are completed, a personalized treatment regimen will be created for you.
At Giggles by Omni, we strongly encourage both partners to attend appointments together, as it is important for both partners to have a full understanding of the journey ahead. Also, infertility affects men and women equally. Omni Che Giggles is the best center for fertility treatment in Vizag. At our hospital we have very skilled and experienced fertility specialists.
During the first appointment, you will meet with your fertility doctor, who will gather information and formulate a personalized care plan to help you achieve your fertility goals.
Step 1: History and examination
Step 2: Blood tests for couples
Step 3: Semen analysis and DNA fragmentation test
Step 4: Tubal evaluation, usually HSG
Treatment for female infertility:
Infertility treatment varies from person to person due to pregnancy, age, personal preferences and duration of infertility. Because it is a complex disorder, it may require one or two treatments or sometimes multiple treatments to restore fertility.
The following are some of the methods used to treat infertility:
Stimulates ovulation: For women who have difficulty with ovulation, fertility drugs that stimulate ovulation are given. Fertility drugs act like naturally occurring hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) – to stimulate ovulation. Fertility drugs increase the chances of getting a good quality egg and a large quantity of eggs.
Surgery: Laparoscopy or laparoscopy is a popular treatment for infertility. It is used to remove endometrial polyps, certain types of fibroids, pelvic or uterine adhesions.
Auxiliary reproduction methods: In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to fertilize the recovered eggs and sperm in vitro. The resulting fetus is transferred to the mother’s womb. It allows control over the fertilization process and has a high success rate of achieving pregnancy. An alternative assisted reproductive technique is intraturine pregnancy (IUI). Millions of healthy sperm are placed in the uterus to be fertilized during ovulation.