In healthy individuals, the small air sacs of the lungs, called alveoli, are filled with air. When a person is infected with pneumonia, it can lead to severe respiratory infection, alveoli inflammation. It can occur in one or both lungs. Air sacs are then filled with inflammatory material, which makes it harder for oxygen to reach the bloodstream and makes it harder to breathe.
Children under 2 years of age are particularly prone to pneumonia. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) provides great protection against bacterial pneumonia and the inclusion of this vaccine in the vaccination schedule reduces the incidence of pneumonia.
There are currently more than 30 known causes of pneumonia, the most common of which are viruses. So both diagnosis and treatment depend on the type of pneumonia, which may be one of the following three types:
- Bacterial pneumonia
- Viral pneumonia
- Mycoplasmal pneumonia
Symptoms of pneumonia:
Children with pneumonia may experience or exhibit the following symptoms:
- Chest pain
- Breathing fast
- High grade fever
- Flaring nostrils
- Difficulty breathing, or eating / drinking
- The feeling of not having a general illness is a lack of rest
Diagnosis of pneumonia
Doctors make a diagnosis after a physical examination. It is often common, sharing symptoms with bronchitis and asthma so it is difficult to diagnose. Some methods of diagnosing pneumonia are:
- Using a stethoscope, a doctor can detect sounds such as bursting, snoring, wheezing, and whispering during inhalation. He / she will also check his / her breathing pattern.
- Hypochondriasis test: In
this test, a cough shroud from the lungs is sent to the lab to find out what is causing the pneumonia.
- Chest X-ray:
X-rays are taken to see the extent and area of pneumonia.
- Blood test:
This is to check the number of white blood cells in the body and to find out if the cause is also in the blood
Treatment of pneumonia
Treatment is mostly inpatient based. Ivy infusion of antibiotics and oxygen therapy plays a key role in this process. The cause needs to be identified and treated appropriately. If the cause is bacteria, antibiotic tablets or injections are recommended. If the cause is viral, antibiotics will not work, and will take 2-4 days to recover.
It is safe for people with pneumonia to be around other people, including family members. But those with weakened immune systems should avoid close contact with the affected person. Most young people feel normal again within a week of recovery.
The best way to prevent pneumonia is to follow basic hygiene practices. This includes covering the mouth with a napkin or tissue when coughing or sneezing and washing hands regularly. It is also essential to dispose of used tissues immediately after use, as germs can survive for many hours after leaving the mouth or nose.