Fertility – PCOS
PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that changes the hormonal balance in a woman. In PCOS, the body releases androgens (male hormones) so a hormonal imbalance occurs. PCOS is usually characterized by excessive facial or body hair growth, baldness, acne, etc. It can contribute to chronic problems such as heart disease and diabetes.
The female reproductive organs are the ovaries. The ovaries produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which regulate the menstrual cycle. The ovaries also produce male hormones called androgens.
Each month, during ovulation, the ovaries release the fertilized egg through the sperm.
The hormones that cause ovulation are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). FSH stimulates the ovary to produce a follicle (a bag containing eggs) – and then LH stimulates the ovary to release a mature egg.
In PCOS, very small, fluid-filled sacs grow inside the ovaries. This bag contains every immature egg, but the eggs never mature to induce ovulation.
Ovulation does not stimulate the levels of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH. Levels of male hormones (androgens) increase and levels of female hormones (estrogen and progesterone) fall. As a result, the menstrual cycle is impaired and therefore women with PCOS tend to have irregular or short periods.
Women with PCOS may or may not have cysts on their ovaries.
PCOS contributes to the failure to conceive and increases the risk of problem or miscarriage.
- Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea)
- Irregular menstrual periods (oligomenorrhea)
- Excessive bleeding during menstruation (polymenorrhea)
- An increase in the size of the ovary with many small, painless cysts or follicles growing inside the ovaries.
- Thickening and darkening of the skin in the neck, armpits, groin and skin folds
- A small increase on the skin (up to the size of a raisin) and usually appears under the arm and around the neck
- Hair fall
- Excessive hair growth on all parts of the body, including the face (hirsutism)
- Obesity or weight gain
- Acne on the face and body
- An increase in blood sugar level
Causes of PCOS :
The causes of PCOS are still unknown to medical science. Some scientists believe that high levels of insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar, play a role. When the body produces too much insulin, abnormal male hormones are released. Sometimes, PCOS can also be due to genetic factors.
Polycystic ovary syndrome may be related to a family history. There is currently no treatment for PCOS, however, there are treatments that can help balance hormones or reduce symptoms such as weight gain or acne.
PCOS can be diagnosed by studying the physical symptoms of excessive hair growth, acne, and baldness:
- Irregular menstrual cycle
- Cysts on the ovaries
- Abnormal levels of male hormones
Blood tests are performed to determine the level of male hormones. Ultrasound is used to detect cysts on the ovaries.
Treatment options for PCOS include:
Lifestyle changes: This is a basic step in the treatment of PCOS. The patient was advised to make lifestyle changes such as control over diet and the inclusion of exercise in their daily lives. Weight loss helps control the menstrual cycle and therefore reduces PCOS symptoms. Weight loss will also reduce the risk of chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes.
Medications: Medications prescribed by a health care provider to correct hormonal imbalances, control ovulation and reduce the symptoms of acne, hair loss or excessive hair growth.
Many treatments such as stimulation ovulation, surgery or assisted reproductive techniques to get pregnant for a woman suffering from PCOS.
It is important to consult a gynecologist to understand the cause of PCOS and allied therapies. Giggles by Omni has the best gynecologist in Vizag. The gynecology department has specialized physicians and advanced equipment to treat PCOS. Our hospital has the best gynecology department in Vizag.